آخرین ارسال های تالار گفتمان
هیچ ارسال جدیدی برای تالار گفتمان وجود ندارد .
بازدید : 3588 مرتبه
تاریخ : چهارشنبه 29 آذر 1391
مجموعه پروتکل اینترنت
لایه کاربرد

BGP · DHCP · DNS · FTP · GTP · HTTP · IMAP · IRC · LDAP · Megaco · MGCP · NNTP · NTP · POP · RIP · RPC · RTP · RTSP · SDP · SIP · SMTP · SNMP · SOAP · SSH · Telnet · TLS/SSL · XMPP ·

(بیشتر)
لایه انتقال

TCP · UDP · DCCP · SCTP · RSVP · ECN ·

(بیشتر)
لایه اینترنت

IP (IPv4, IPv6· ICMP · ICMPv6 · IGMP · IPsec ·

(بیشتر)
لایه پیوند

ARP/InARP · NDP · OSPF · Tunnels (L2TP· PPP · زیرلایه نظارت بر دسترسی به رسانه انتقال (اترنت, خط اشتراک دیجیتال, ISDN, FDDI·

(بیشتر)

اترنت(به انگلیسی: Ethernet)‏ یکی از فناوریهای مبتنی بر Frame در شبکههای رایانه برای شبکه‌های محلی (LAN) می‌باشد. این نام از مفهوم فیزیکی ether گرفته شده‌است. این فناوری وضعیت سیم‌کشی و استانداردهای سیگنالینگ در لایه فیزیکی را معین می‌کند و همچنین قالب‌های آدرسی همچون MAC آدرس در لایه Data link . Ehternet به‌عنوان استاندارد IEEE۸۰۲٫۳ شناخته می‌شود با ترکیب کابلهای زوج به هم تابیده برای اتصال نقاط انتهائی شبکه و فیبرنوری برای اتصالهای اصلی ( back bone ) سایت یک سطح گسترده‌ای از تکنولوژی LAN متصل از طریق سیم را پوشش می‌دهد. این تکنولوژی از دهه ۱۹۹۰ تاکنون بکارگرفته شده‌است و جایگزین استانداردهائی همچون Token ring ، FDDI و ARCNET شده‌است. در سالهای اخیر Wi-Fi و شبکه‌های بی‌سیم براساس استاندارد IEEE۸۰۲٫۱۱ در خانه و ادارات کوچک شایع شده‌است و باعث تقویت Ehternet در نصب آن در مقیاس‌های بزرگ‌تر شده‌است.

محتویات

تاریخچه

Ethernet در شرکت PARC Xerox در سالهای ۱۹۷۵-۱۹۷۳ پایه ریزی شد. Robert Metcalfe و Dacid Boggs خلاصه‌ای از Ethernet را تا قبل از مارچ ۱۹۷۴ نوشتند و ارائه کردند. در مارس ۱۹۷۴ شخصی بنام R.Z.Bachrach یادداشتی به Metcalfe و Boggs و مدیرشان نوشت، مبنی بر اینکه ً از لحاظ تکنیکی و یا مفهومی چیز جدیدی در پیشنهاد شما نمی‌باشد و تجزیه و تحلیل نشان خواهد داد که سیستم شما دچار خطا می‌شود. اشکال این آنالیز این بود که به اثر Channel capture توجه نشده بود که تا سال ۱۹۹۴ به آن پی نبرده شد. در سال ۱۹۷۵ شرکت Xerox این موضوع را به نام Metcalfe و Boggs به همراه Chuck thacker و Lampson Butler به‌عنوان مخترعین تحت کنام سیستم ارتباط داده‌ای چندین نقطه‌ای همراه با تشخیص تصادف ثبت کرد در سال ۱۹۷۶ بعد از اینکه سیستم در PARC توسعه یافت، Metcalfe و Boggs یک مقاله منتشر کردند.

Ethernet تجربی که در آن مقاله شرح داده شد با سرعت Mbit/s ۳ کار می‌کرد و فیلدهای آدرس مبداء و مقصد ۸ بیت بود و قالب آدرسهای Ethernet همچون قالبهای امروزی نبود. Metcalfe در سال ۱۹۷۹ از شرکت Xerox جدا شد تا بتواند استفاده از کامپیوترهای شخصی و شبکه‌های محلی را گسترش دهد از اینرو شرکت ۳Com را تأسیس کرد. او شرکتهای DEC، INTel و Xerox متقاعد کرد تا به منظور توسعه Ehternet به‌عنوان یک استاندارد با همدیگر همکاری کنند. از اینرو استاندارد DIX برگرفته از ( Digital / INTel / Xerox ) نام گرفت که استانداردی برای Ethernet با سرعتی برابر ۱۰ مگابیت بر ثانیه با آدرسهای مبداء و مقصد ۴۸ بیتی و یک فیلد ۱۶ بیتی جهت نوع بسته اطلاعاتی Ethernet . اولین استاندارد در ۳۰ سپتامبر ۱۹۸۰ منتشر شد که رقیبی برای دو سیستم بزرگ ARCNET , Token ring می‌بود. اما بزودی آن دو سیستم بزرگ زیر موجهای عظیم تجهیزات Ethernet مدفون شدند. در واقع شرکت ۳Com تبدیل به یک شرکت اصلی و پیشرو گردید.

سیستم‌های Ethernet با سیمهای زوج به هم تابیده از اواسط دهه ۱۹۸۰ توسعه یافتند. همراه با شروع StarLAN، که LOBASE –T شناخته شده‌است. این سیستم‌ها جایگزین کابل کواکسیال که شبکه‌های Ethernet اولیه مبتنی بر آن بود شده. شبکه‌های اولیه به‌وسیله Hub به کابلهای UTP متصل بودند که با استفاده از CSMA/CD سوئیچها جایگزین آنها شدند .

توصیف عمومی

Ethernet بطور کلی بر این نظریه بنا شد: ارتباط کامپیوترها برروی کابل کواکسیال که به‌عنوان یک وسیله انتقال عمل می‌کند و به صورت اشعاب تزریقی به کامپیوتر وصل می‌شود بدین معنا که به کمک یک ابزار محکم شونده بروی کابل.سوزنی به هسته کابل تزریق می‌شود وبه مرکز کابل می‌رسد واین کابل به نام 10Base5هم مشهور است که عدد 10سرعت انتقال بحسب مگا بیت بر ثانیه عدد 5 طول حداکثر هر قطعه کابل بدون نیاز به تکرار کننده را بر حسب100متر مشخص می‌کرد روش بکار گرفته شده شباهت زیادی به سیستم‌های رادیوئی داشت اگرچه تفاوتهای پایه‌ای با هم داشتند همچون این واقعیت که تشخیص تصادم در یک سیستم ارسال در کابل ساده تر از ارسال رادیو است. کابل مشترک که کانال ارتباطی مشترک را ایجاد می‌کند به ether(اتر) مربوط شده است و از این مبناست که نام Ethernet اقتباس شده‌است. با توجه به این مفاهیم اولیه، Ethernet تکامل یافت به تکنولوژی شبکه‌ای پیچیده‌ای که امروزه در اغلب شبکه‌های LAN بکار گرفته شده‌است کابلهای کواکسیال با ارتباطات نقطه به نقطه که به‌وسیله Ethernet به Hub یا سوئیچ متصل می‌شوند جایگزین شدند. که موجب کاهش هزینه نصب، افزایش اطمینان و قابلیت مدیریت نقطه به نقطه و خطایابی می‌شود. StarLAN اولین قدم تکامل Ethernet از یک گذرگاه عمومی با کابل کواکسیال به یک شبکه با کابلهای جفت به هم تابیده و Hubهای قابل مدیریت بود. ایجاد کابلهای زوج به هم تابیده بطور قابل ملاحظه‌ای هزینه نصب را کاهش داد. پایانه‌های Ethernet با ارسال بسته‌های اطلاعاتی با یکدیگر ارتباط برقرار می‌کنند هر پایانه دارای یک آدرس ۴۸ بیتی (MAC) می‌باشد که بصورت سخت‌افزاری در کارت شبکه (NIC) قرار دارد و کارت شبکه بسته‌های اطلاعاتی که آدرس پایانه‌های دیگر را دارند قبول نمی‌کند. علی رغم تغییرات مهم در Ethernet از یک کابل ضخیم کوکسیال که با سرعت Gbit/s۱ کار می‌کنند از آنجا که همگی از یک قالب اطلاعاتی استفاده می‌کنند قابلیت اتصال به یکدیگر را دارند . امروزه با توجه به فراگیری Ethernet و کاهش هزینه سخت‌افزاری آن اغلب تولیدکنندگان بردهای اصلی ( mother board) که دارای کارت Ethernet باشد تولید می‌کنند که باعث عدم نیاز به یک کارت شبکه جدا و صرفه جوئی در فضای بکار رفته می‌شود.

توپولوژی (استاندارد) توپولوژی پیش فرض برای اترنت ،توپولوژی فیزیکی خطی تعریف شده است. توپولوژی شبکه مثل توپولوژی خطی که از توپولوژی منطقی خطی استفاده میکنندازاترنت بهره میبرند.نوع کابلی که درهر توپولوژی استفاده میشودنیزدرقوانین همان توپولوژی مشخص شده است. 

تعامل با چندین کاربر

CSMA/CD

در اصل Ehternet یک کابل کواکسیال مشترک که در اطراف ساختمان برای اعمال دستگاه‌ها قرار گرفته بود از انجا که دستگاه‌ها مجبور به استفاده از یک مسیر مشترک بودند می‌بایستی از قاعده خاصی که بنام CSMA/CD بود پیروی می‌کردند. این قواعد به شرح ذیل می‌باشند : 1111

بسته آماده ارسال می‌باشد

آیا خط ارتباطی آزاد می‌باشد؟ اگر آزاد نیست، تا زمانی که آماده شود صبر کن

شروع به انتقال

آیا یک تصادم رخ داده است؟ اگر چنین است به رویه تشخیص تصادم رجوع شود. شمارنده‌های ارسال صفر شوند و انتقال اطلاعات تمام شود.

رویه تشخیص تصادم

انتقال اطلاعات تا حداقل زمان بسته یا همه دریافت کننده‌ها تصادم را تشخیص دهند.

شمارنده ارسال مجدد افزایش می‌یابد.

آیا به حداکثر تعداد دفعات انتقال مجدد رسیده ایم؟ اگر بله، انتقال اطلاعات رها شود.

براساس تعداد تصادمها بصورت تصادفی صبر جهت ارسال مجدد

مجدداً وارد مرحله اول رویه اصلی شویم .

به‌عنوان مثال چه اتفاقی می‌افتد وقتی تمام مهمانها در یک مهمانی شام در طریق یک رسانه مشترک (هوا) با یکدیگر صحبت می‌کنند. قبل از حرف زدن، هر مهمان بطور محترمانه‌ای تا پایان صحبت شخصی که در حال صحبت است صبر می‌کند. اگر دو مهمان هم‌زمان شروع به صحبت کنند هر دو سکوت کرده و برای مدت زمانی صبر می‌کنند ( در Ehternet این زمان در حد میلی ثانیه‌است). انتظار بر این است که با انتظار دو زمان متفاوت ( تصادفی) دو مهمان دوباره در یک زمان شروع به صحبت نکنند، بنابراین از یک تصادم جلوگیری می‌شود وقتی تعداد تصادمها بیش از یکی برای هر انتقال باشد زمان انتظار بصورت نمائی افزایش می‌یابد. کامپیوترها به‌وسیله یک AUI که بعدها در داخل کارت شبکه تعبیه شد به کابل متصل می‌شوند. یکی از معایب شبکه‌های ساده که بصورت Bus راه اندازی می‌شدند امکان قطع شدن و غیرقابل استفاده شدن کل یک قسمت شبکه بعلت قطعی تنها یک اتصال یا بخشی از کابل می‌بود. از آنجا که تمام ارتباطات تنها از طریق یک سیم مشترک (Bus) صورت می‌گرفت تمامی اطلاعاتی که به‌وسیله یک کامپیوتر ارسال می‌شد به‌وسیله تمامی کامیپوترها دریافت می‌شد حتی اگر اطلاعهات تنها مربوط به یک کامپیوتر می‌بود.

کارت شبکه وقتی بسته‌ای می‌رسید یک وقفه به سی‌پی‌یو می‌فرستد. کارت شبکه اطلاعات را در صورتی که مربوط به آدرس خودش نباشد رد می‌کند مگر اینکه در وضعیت Promiscuous قرار داشته باشد. این ویژگی که یکی صحبت کند و همه بشنوند ضعف امنیتی محیطهای اشتراکی(Ehternet Bus) است زیرا یک کامپیوتر اینگونه شبکه Ehternet می‌تواند تمامی ترافیکی برروی سیم است را استراق سمع کند. استفاده از یک کابل مشترک به معنای به اشتراک گذاشتن پهنای باند نیز می‌باشد که عامل کندی شبکه می‌شود.

Repeater and Hub ( تکرار کننده‌ها و هاب )

بعلت تضعیف سیگنال و مسائل زمانی شبکه اترنت با کابل کواکسیال از لحاظ اندازه محدودیت دارند. برای مثال کابلهای کواکسیال ۱۰ BASE۵ حداکثر ۵۰۰ متر طول می‌توانند داشته باشند. یا شبکه‌های سرعت بالای Bus انتهای کابلها به یک مقاومت بایستی بسته شوند.

برای Ehternet با کابلهای کواکسیال به انتهای هر کابلی یک مقاومت ۵۰ اهمی متصل می‌شود. معمولاً این مقاومت بصورت یک اتصال به آخرین دستگاه متصل در Bus وصل می‌شود. اگر اتصال انتهائی انجام نشود یا اگر در طول کابل قطعی وجود داشته باشد سیگنال ارسالی در کابل وقتی به انتهای آن می‌رسد منعکس می‌شود. این انعکاس را نمی‌توان از تصادم تشخیص داد و در نتیجه برروی ارتباط تأثیر می‌گذارد. برای بیشتر کردن طول ارتباط از یک تکرار کننده (Repeater) Ehternet استفاده می‌کنند. تکرار کننده سیگنال را از یک کابل Ehternet می‌گیرد و آنرا در کابل دیگر تکرار می‌کند.اگر یک تصادم تشخیص داده شود، تکرار کننده یک سیگنال تمامی در گاه‌ها ارسال می‌کند تا از تشخیص تصادم مطمئن شود. به‌وسیله تکرار کننده‌ها می‌توان پنج قطعه بین دو کامپیوتر را متصل کرد بطوری که سه مورد از انها می‌توانند دستگاه‌های متصل شده باشند. تکرار کننده‌ها قادر به تشخیص ختم غیرمعمول در یک ارتباط شوند و نتیجتا انتقال اطلاعات را به ان ارتباط متوقف می‌کنند. چنانچه در یکی از قسمت‌های متصل به درگاه تکرار کننده خطائی بعلت قطع کابل اتفاق بیفتاد، تکرار کننده به انتقال اطلاعات در دیگر درگاه‌ها ادامه می‌دهد. البته به اینکه کدامیک از قسمت‌ها قطع شده و باعث عدم دسترسی به Serverها شده می‌تواند تأثیر در غیر قابل استفاده بودن شبکه داشته باشد.

تکاربران هزینه‌های کابل کشی بصورت ستاره‌ای را متوجه شدند و سازندگان تجهیزات شروع به ساخت تکرار کننده‌های با چندین درگاه شدند تکرار کننده‌های با چندین درگاه بن


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موضوع : بدون موضوع - بدون موضوع
ارسال توسط alijalaly

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Whereas there are many on-line poker websites, the essential factor to making positive that you have an pleasant and possibly worthwhile online poker experience is selecting an outstanding on-line poker room that readily accept Indian players and make it straightforward to deposit. Usually, there are dozens of players competing on the poker and rummy tables at Thrill Poker, however that number is anticipated to go up shortly. We'll replace the checklist as increasingly prime-notch Indian poker online websites become out there. A lot of the suppliers of on-line poker, on-line rummy, on-line card games, and so on are openly flouting the legal guidelines of India especi


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While the Price might need jurisdiction over enterprise enjoying all through the UK, they have no authority over sites being operated abroad which shall be accessed by UK punters, and might due to this fact supply little protection to residents in Britain. Since many Indian players are pretty new to the world of on-line Texas Hold'em, it is that much more important that they be given dependable information about one of the best poker websites accessible. Toutes les variantes de poker sont déclinées dans une gamme d'enjeux qui conviendra à tous les joueurs, peu importe leur niveau et la taille de leur bankroll. He pulled me to the desk and started operating by way of e


شنبه 9 اردیبهشت 1396 | 14:08

The company recently filed papers with the Nationwide Stock Alternate of India Ltd asserting its intention to amass Gaussian Networks, which is the parent firm of , India's largest on-line poker website. On-line gaming trade is booming in India and it'll be a multi billion dollar business in India. To be able to seize this market the online poker entrepreneurs must comply with all the relevant laws of India and seek the advice of some good techno authorized firm before launching their websites. Delhi-based Nikita Luther is among the many few ladies playing skilled poker and was recently chosen to play for and signify Adda52. The founders of this event, Sameer Rattonsey a


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چهارشنبه 13 اردیبهشت 1396 | 00:09

To clear this legal uncertainty, many on-line games providers approached the Supreme Courtroom whereas it was dealing one of many circumstances pertaining to offline rummy. Courts in India haven't but bought an opportunity to check these arguments, although two terse Excessive Court docket orders have indicated that the outcome of poker-related litigation may be optimistic. At FTRpoker, our sole goal is to give you - our players - a pure and seamless poker experience. Based by Jharkhand-born Anurag Dikshit, poker websites equivalent to went on to turn out to be the second largest in the world. This proving floor is the best way to boost gamers game by enabling them to maxim


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شنبه 23 اردیبهشت 1396 | 15:09

Blind man's bluff (additionally referred to as Indian poker, or squaw poker or Oklahoma brow or Indian head) is a model of poker that is unconventional in that every person sees the cards of all players besides his personal. The resolve dominated that wagers involving cash are illegal and that although the video video games proposed to be offered may require ability, banks and financial institutions may refuse servicing websites that would supply such video video games. There are a lot of who imagine that the net playing industry may eat into the earnings of the brick & mortar on line casino industry but Hardik Dhebar, Group CFO of Delta Corp mentioned that the company


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Joker Poker is the web video poker recreation with great digital presentation, enjoyable and cheerful colours, and an overall nice sport of 5-card stud! They've recently signed a deal with the WPT World Poker Tour to kind a formidable partnership. Gamers hardly ever encounter issues with our recommended Internet playing websites, however if you do, we advise first contacting that site's customer support directly. Taxation, money laundering and payment gateways points should also be taken care of by these proposing to open on-line poker websites in India. KhelPlay Poker Blog brings you the information on playing online poker in India. It is little difficult to gauge the rea


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Poker's recognition is rising in India, a country whose population of about 1.three billion is second solely to that of China. For those who cherished this short article and also you want to receive particulars almost about poker india you could possibly try these out i implore you to go to our web-web page. Since then, there have been several Indian courtroom rulings pertaining to the standing of poker. Whether or not your favor game is Texas Hold'em or Omaha you will discover all the latest knowledge on the market right here. On-line gaming trade in India is dealing with the battle of laws hurdles as well. Since many Indian gamers are fairly new to the world of on-lin


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The Public Playing Act of 1867 was passed by the British, a hundred and fifty years back, prohibiting gambling. Aditya and Kunal predict we cannot have a tradition of poker followers like, say, the US, till India has its Chris Moneymaker moment. Poker and India won't have picked up initially effectively resulting from a whole lot of contradictions as well as authorized issues being cash involved in it and thus making it fall underneath playing act. Players who wish to prolong their accomodation for PLO event, can achieve this with further value of two,500 per evening/particular person. It's all about poker and there's no greater brand on the market to test one&#


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The Indian poker scene is still very young, however annually the sport becomes increasingly more popular as gamers around the nation are exposed to it. For many years it was troublesome for gamers to enjoy the game, since Indian casinos were not allowed to supply desk video games. Rahul, who declined to be identified by his full name, is among greater than 50,000 individuals who play on homegrown online poker startups similar to Adda52, Poker-Baazi and Spartan Poker every month. This a hundred and fifty chips poker set comprises of six rolls of twenty-5 chips which are valued at 5, 25, a hundred and 500. Toutes les variantes de poker sont déclinées dans une gamme d'enjeux


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